Sacroiliitis is the inflammation of one or both of the sacroiliac joints, which are located where the sacrum or tailbone, in the last section of the spinal column, meets the ileum, which is a part of the bony pelvis. This inflammation causes lower back pain that may extend to the buttocks and the thighs. The pain worsens after prolonged periods of sitting or standing, ranging from a sharp and stabbing pain to a dull ache over the affected area.
It occurs due to trauma, osteoarthritis (wear and tear of the joints and ligaments), psoriatic arthritis (a condition that causes joint pain as well as psoriasis or scaly patches on the surface of the skin), and pyogenic sacroiliitis (due to bacterial infections). Hormones released during pregnancy relax the ligaments and muscles supporting the joints, causing them to rotate. Excessive weight gain during pregnancy also adds to wear and tear of the joint.
The condition is diagnosed by physical examination to detect the location and extent of the pain, in addition to the range of movement possible for the joint. Imaging tests like X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs help to diagnose the source of the pain. Patients are treated with pain relievers, physical therapy, steroid injections, or never blocks by ablating (or destroying) the nerve in severe cases. When left untreated, sacroiliitis may lead to difficulty moving the joints, sleep deprivation, or depression.
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